Romans 16

The Word Made Fresh

1I commend our sister Phoebe to you. She ministers in the church at Cenchreae. 2Welcome her in the Lord as you would any of the saints, and help her with anything she needs from you. She has been a blessing to many – myself included.

3Greet Prisca and Aquila. They have been my fellow workers in Christ Jesus. 4They risked their lives for me, and I give thanks for them – not only I but also all the churches of the Gentiles; 5greet the congregation in their house as well. Also greet my good friend Epaenetus, who was the first one in Asia to accept Christ. 6Say hello to Mary for me. She has worked hard with you. 7Also Andronicus and Junias; they are my relatives, and were in prison with me. They are important apostles who were in Christ before me. 8Greet Ampliatus, my friend in the Lord; 9and Urbanus who worked with us in Christ, and also my dear friend Stachys. 10Say hello to Apelles, who is dear to Christ, and those who belong to Aristobulus’ family. 11Also to Herodion, my relative, and the family of Narcissus who belong to the Lord. 12Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, and my dear Persis, women who have worked hard for the Lord. 13Greet Rufus, whom the Lord chose, and his mother, who is a mother to me as well. 14Say hello to Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and all the friends who are with them. 15And greet Philologus and Julia and Nereus and his sister, and also Olympas and the believers who are with them. 16Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches that belong to Christ greet you.

17I urge you all to keep an eye out for those who would cause arguments and troubles, opposing things you have learned. Stay away from them. 18They and others like them don’t serve our Lord Christ. They only serve their own egos. They are smooth talkers and flatterers who try to turn the hearts of the simple-minded away from Christ. 19Your obedience is well known, and I’m glad for you, but I want you to be wise in the things that are good, and innocent of evil. 20The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.

21My helper Timothy greets you, as do Lucius and Jason and Sosipater, my fellow countrymen.

22I am Tertius, the one who is writing this letter, and I greet you in the Lord also. 23Gaius, who is my host, and the host of the whole church, greets you. The city treasurer, Erastus, greets you, as does our brother Quartus. 24May the grace of Jesus Christ our Lord be with you all. Amen.

25Finally, to the One who is able to strengthen you through my good news and proclamation of Jesus Christ, which reveals the mystery that was kept secret for many years 26but is now well known; and through the writings of the prophets which is now available to all the Gentiles, as has been commanded by the eternal God to bring about obedience to faith; 27to the only wise God who is known through Christ, to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen!


1-2: Paul begins a long list of salutations to end his letter. Phoebe is not mentioned elsewhere, but Cenchreae is on the coast of Syria, and Paul made one brief stop there (Acts 18:18).

3-16: A long list of names is given, most of which are mentioned nowhere else. There was obviously a thriving Christian community in Rome long before Paul ever got there.

17-20: He throws out a final warning against “those who would cause arguments,” etc. The mention of Satan comes as somewhat of a surprise, appearing here for the first and only time in the letter. “The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet,” seems to be a figure of speech which means that if they continue to live in peace with one another the opposition of “those who cause dissentions” will be overcome. The phrase about crushing Satan “under your feet” seems to be an allusion to Genesis 3:15, or perhaps Psalm 91:13 (see also Luke 10:18-19).

21: Timothy we have met and of whom we will come to learn a great deal before we are done with the New Testament. Lucius may have been mentioned (see Acts 13:1), although it is impossible to know if that was the same person. Jason and Sosipater are otherwise unknown.

22: Tertius is unmentioned elsewhere as well, but we learn from this verse that Paul used secretaries to pen his letters (see the opening comments from Chapter 1 above), and this letter has been dictated to one Tertius.


The last chapter of Romans is a reminder that none of us who serve the Lord do so alone. Today is a good time to thank God for those who have taught us and prayed for us and led us on our faith journey through life.